Compressed air pneumatic systems require methods of safe and precise control of the actuators unique to their accoutrement. Although the medium is fluid, just as hydraulic or process water systems, the execution of control is different in many ways than with a liquid. What is shared in the conduction of any fluid power medium is the need for valves to control force, velocity and direction of movement.
Pressure relief valves will control pressure at their inlet port by exhausting pressure to atmosphere. Relief valves are typically used only in receivers or air storage devices, such as accumulators, as a means to prevent excessive pressurization. As such, relief valves are often called safety valves and are not typically appropriate for use anywhere but the air preparation stage.
Pressure regulators in pneumatic systems limit pressure downstream of the unit by blocking pressure upstream at the inlet. Regulators are used in the air preparation stage, as well as in control of cylinders and motors. The letter R in the acronym FRL stands for regulator, which is installed downstream of the receiver tank, but before the circuit they are regulating pressure for.
Sometimes multiple stages of pressure reduction are required, especially with a large centralized compressor and receiver feeding various workstations. A regulator can control pressure within the main grid of distribution plumbing, but sometimes air is piped directly to an FRL at each workstation or machine. Pressure at this main header could be 120 psi or more, but a branch circuit could be regulated at 90 psi, for example. Most regulators are capable of relieving downstream pressure, which prevents that downstream pressure from elevating as a result of load-induced pressure or thermal expansion.
Pressure regulators can be had as stand-alone units, but sometimes a filter is attached to kill two birds with one stone. Regulators are most often available as a component of a modular set, with a filter, regulator, lubricator or dryer etc., and can be assembled in any combination. The regulator will have an inlet port, outlet port and a port for the pressure gauge, which they are most often included with.
Pressure regulators can also be used to control pressure for individual actuators, such as an inline regulator or work-port mounted regulator. These are typically quite small and included with reverse flow check valves, as would be required for double acting function of a cylinder, for example. Further still, differential pressure regulators are offered by some manufacturers, to maintain a set pressure differential between the two ports, rather than just maintaining downstream pressure. It should be noted that all pressure regulators are adjustable, most often with screws or knobs.
Also common in pneumatic systems are valves to control flow. There are fewer available types of flow valves compared to pressure or directional valves, but most circuits apply them to make for easy adjustment to cylinder or motor velocity. Controlling velocity in pneumatic systems is more complex than in a hydraulic system, because pressure differential between the work ports of a cylinder plays a larger part.
Flow control valves for pneumatic systems are quite simple, usually available in two configurations used in two different ways. One configuration is merely a variable restriction, with a screw or knob adjustment to open and close a variable orifice, which is also often referred to as a needle or choke valve. The other type introduces a check valve, which allows free flow in one direction, and restriction in the opposing direction. For whatever reason, this valve has hijacked the name flow control all for itself.
Flow control valves are applied in two different ways; meter in or meter out. Meter in is the method of controlling the rate of airflow as it enters a motor or cylinder. When metering in, a cylinder will move rapidly with high force and efficiency, but the motion of the piston is prone to spongy and unpredictable movement. When metering out, the cylinder velocity is more stable and repeatable, but efficiency and dynamic force are lost to the energy required to push past the flow control. Regardless, most pneumatic applications operate using meter out flow controls, because the disadvantages are easy to overcome by increasing upstream pressure.
A method of increasing cylinder velocity, typically for double acting or spring-return cylinder retraction functions, is to add a quick exhaust valve to the cap side work port. Because cylinders retract faster than they extend as a result of differential air volumes, it is harder to evacuate the cap side air volume without oversized valves or plumbing. A quick exhaust valve vents directly to air from the cap side work port, and massively reduces the backpressure created upon retraction, permitting very rapid piston velocity.
Directional control valves
Pneumatic directional valves are available in many sizes, styles and configurations. At the basic end of the spectrum is the simple check valve, which allows free flow in one direction and prevents flow in the reverse direction. These can be installed anywhere from right after the receiver to within a flow control valve itself.
As directional valves grow in complexity, they are specified under a general naming practice related to the number of positional envelopes of the valve and the number of work ports in the valve, and specifically in the order described. For example, if it has five ports, port 1 will be for pressure inlet, ports 2 and 4 for work ports, and 3 and 5 for the exhaust ports. A valve with three positions will have a neutral condition, extend condition and retract condition. Putting it all together, this describes a five-way, three-position valve, also referred to as a 5/3 valve. The common configurations seen in pneumatics are 5/3, 5/2, 4/2, 3/2 and sometimes 2/2 valves.
Also part of the description of a directional valve is its method of both operation and positioning. The valve operator is the mechanism providing the force to shift the valve between its positions. The operator can be a manual lever, electric solenoid, an air pilot, or cam mechanism, to name a few. Some valves are a combination of these, such as a solenoid pilot valve, which is a tiny valve providing pilot energy to move the main-stage valve. Positioning of any valve is achieved by either a spring, such as with a 5/2 spring-offset valve, or with detents in 5/2 detented valves.
A 5/2 spring-offset valve will return to its starting position when energy is removed from its operator, like de-energizing the coil, or removing pilot pressure. A 5/2 detented valve will stay in the position it was last activated to until the operator switches it again.
Pneumatic valves are manufactured in various incarnations. Poppet valves are simple, using a spring to push a face of the poppet down on its seat. Construction can be metal-to-metal, rubber-to-metal or even with diaphragms. Poppet valves can often flow in one direction, just as a check valve, but need to be energized to flow in reverse. They are limited to two- or three-way port configurations, although they can mimic four- or five-way valves when used in parallel. They offer typically high flow conductance for their size, and are generally very resistant to contamination.
Spool valves use a notched metal cylinder that slides within a precisely machined body, drilled with three to five ports, or even seven ports if the valve is pilot operated. Low-end valves consist of only a spool and body, and are prone to internal leakage. Better valves use seals in the body or spool to prevent leakage between ports. High-end spool valves are constructed with precision, often requiring fine lapping procedures during manufacturing, and with their tight tolerances, often require few seals, improving reliability and longevity. Other forms of high-end valves use a sliding block of metal or ceramic, which is not only efficient, but also extremely resistant to contamination, making them great for dirty environments.
Pneumatic directional valves come in both standard and non-standard mounting configurations. The non-standard valve is constructed at the whim of the manufacturer, with port layout, operator style and mounting options unique to their product. They can be inline, subplate mounted or sectional stacks mounted in a row. Because each manufacturer does mounting differently, it is best to research the product appropriate for your application.
Luckily, most manufacturers have lines of standardized valves suiting one or more specification, such as ISO 5599-1, with its staggered oval ports; this means one manufacturer’s valve will fit the subplate or manifold of another manufacturer’s. Port and electrical connections are standardized with most valves as well. NPT ports are common, but many new valves come with push lock fittings on the subplate itself. Electrical connectors for standardized valves are frequently DIN, mini-DIN or with field bus connection, making the operation of a dozen valves as easy as one connector.